Wednesday, November 23, 2011

A Portrait of the Artist as Waheed Murad

“And he sets his mind to unknown arts”

[From the mailing list of Saleena Karim, author of Secular Jinnah and Pakistan (2010), Monday, November 21, 2011. The article attached with the mail is being copied after it.]

Hello Folks,

This week marks the 28th death anniversary of Pakistani actor/filmmaker Waheed Murad. For those of you who are unfamiliar with his work, Waheed Murad is one of Pakistan's biggest ever screen legends. The title character in one of his best known films, Armaan, was the inspiration behind Iqbal Academy's recent TV film, 'Iqbal', which I mentioned to you all a few months ago, and which is available on YouTube.

So why, you may ask, am I mentioning Waheed Murad here? What has he to do with Jinnah, Iqbal, or the story of Pakistan? Perhaps more than you think. Iqbal Academy researcher Khurram Ali Shafique has been collecting material on the filmmaker for a number of years. He has found some interesting links between Murad and Iqbal (personal and intellectual) and has done some presentations exploring what Murad has to offer as an artist. The attached article written by Mr Shafique is sure to intrigue you, and is a good introduction for anyone who doesn't know about Murad.

In the meantime, the links take you to a series of short articles, including clips from his movies that have been used in Mr Shafique's presentations.
  1. Know Thyself (Opening Clip)
  2. The World of Consensus Literature (a hymn about the Unity of God = unity of humankind)
  3. Bezar Sahib (elitist literature)
  4. The Last Song (Mysteries of Time)
  5. The Wind-Up
Comments are welcome, and in fact encouraged.
Take Care Folks,
Saleena Karim,
author of Secular Jinnah

A Portrait of the Artist as Waheed Murad
By Khurram Ali Shafique
Nukta Art Mag, Karachi; 2010

“And he sets his mind to unknown arts”. Ovid wrote it in Latin, James Joyce cited it as epigram of his famous novel, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1914-16), and I am using the English translation for describing Waheed Murad (1938-1983).

Ulysses by James Joyce inspired
Waheed Murad while he was studying
English literature. Research into the
"stream of consciousness" led him
to other works by Joyce and
works by Henry James, Virgina Woolf
and William Faulkner
Given the nature of its content, a good way of beginning the present article would be to remind the reader about Joyce’s novel and the stream of consciousness technique used there, and then to show how Waheed translated the literary technique to cinema, with a different purpose, in Ishara (1969), a movie written, produced and directed by him.

Hence I am now on the Wikipedia page about the novel. The link to Spark Notes gives me that handy definition which I needed for sharing with readers, “stream of consciousness, a stylistic form in which written prose seeks to represent the characters’ stream of inner thoughts and perceptions rather than render these characters from an objective, external perspective.” Precisely, but Waheed replaced “written prose” with movie and sought to represent a combined “stream of inner thoughts and perceptions” of two characters: he and the viewer. The film begins with the subjective camera moving into a street and a voiceover welcomes the viewer. Thus it gets established that what you see is what passes through the stream of your “inner thoughts and perceptions” while you watch the movie. This also makes you the main character in the story, which now becomes a story about your exploration of a new world, and the world is the movie you have entered.

A second character is introduced almost simultaneously. It is the welcoming voice, “Mera naam Amir hai…” (“My name is Amir…”). The voice tells you that it lives in that street, and soon you are taken to the room where Amir is painting pictures. The voice belongs to him, which is Waheed himself in the role of an aspiring painter who has a good taste but is also passionate about feedback from the uninitiated. Out of the three little children from the neighborhood who watch him making the picture, the first child likes it, the second doesn’t and the third dislikes. Now it may become clear that the street in the opening shot represented the world of cinema, the room is the mind of Waheed Murad and pictures are metaphor for movies (in Urdu, both were called “tasveer”). Three little children are the entire range of feedback you may offer about the “picture” (read “movie”) that is being made in front of you: like it, don’t like it or dislike it but your feedback is essentially immature right now because you are new to this world and are yet to understand its ways, just like those children (be any of them or all of them, they are your alter egos).

Bildungsroman means "formation novel".
Wilhelm Miester by Goethe (above) is a famous
example. Ishara, written and directed
by Waheed Murad is also a film about the
coming of age: it traces the psychological and
 moral growth of the viewer
in the act of engaging with the film.  
I would have liked to write here what happens in the story but Wikipedia has distracted me with the term bildungsroman. “The bildungsroman (German: "formation novel") is a genre of the novel which focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood,” says Wikipedia. “The birth of the bildungsroman is normally dated to the publication of Goethe’s The Apprenticeship of Wilhelm Meister in 1795-96.” However, a famous earlier example is the Arabic romance Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, named by its 11th century writer Ibn Tufail after a Persian story by Bu Ali Ibn Sina (Avicenna) of a century before. Ibn Sina’s story was about an old sage instructing the young reader about mysteries of the universe – active intellect informing the rational human soul. Ibn Tufail told a story about an abandoned child growing up to maturity through inquiry and reasoning.

Ishara is a coming of age story but it is the viewer who grows up: you enter the world of the artist as if newly born into another world, you see yourself as one (or all) of three little children and then you see the artist falling in love with Aliya, a college student. It is not impossible for the viewers to identify themselves with Aliya at this point: in real life, it was the name of the filmmaker’s infant daughter, born around this time. Iqbal used the name of his son, Javid, to represent posterity. Waheed used the name of his daughter as a metaphor for the next generation, as he instructed them about mysteries just like the old sage of Avicenna’s story, transforming them from the children of the first scene to the college student of the main story.

The instruction is offered, and the story told, through “stream of inner thoughts and perceptions” that typically passes through the imagination of a viewer while watching a movie of mainstream cinema, especially Indo-Pakistan. Destiny intervenes and the aspiring artist gets noticed by a woman who is young, rich and single. Reshma falls in love but Amir’s heart and soul belong to Aliya. Hence Reshma probably represents the artist’s contemporaries who help him gain recognition but the artist remains committed to generations that shall come later (“I am the Voice of the Poet of Tomorrow,” said Iqbal. “Turning away from my contemporaries, I have a word to share with the new generation”). The posterity shall return the artist’s love but may have its own issues to sort out first: Aliya is under obligation to marry Ishrat, the son of her aunt and guardian. Of course, destiny intervenes again in the end and things get sorted out as they should be – but what is that?

The theory of art presented in Ishara (1969)
by Waheed Murad is distinctively from
Allama Iqbal (above).
In presenting Ishara, Waheed relied exclusively on stock items of mainstream cinema but he managed to make some pertinent statements. Foremost among these was his theory of art. In A Portrait, Joyce’s protagonist had famously viewed family, nation and religion as constraints an artist must avoid for growing wings. Around the very same time, in 1915, Iqbal offered a different view of art in ‘Secrets of the Self’ (Asrar-i-Khudi), where family, nation and religion worked as catalysts for the artist. In Ishara, the artist belongs distinctively to this school of thought.

His first song is a hymn in praise of the Almighty, by Whose grace destiny has smiled on all who share the artist’s world. While singing and dancing (with abundant allusions to well-known moves of Waheed from his other movies), he pulls together the entire range of society from burqa-clad women to girls in teddy shalwars, and from the roadside worker to men in evening suites. Bringing them together in pairs from three successive generations of children, youth and seniors, he makes them dance in a circle around him while he revolves, not very unlike a whirling dervish, in the centre. Gradually he moves out but the circle keeps revolving even then (“Nations are born in the hearts of the poets,” says Iqbal. “They prosper and die in the hands of politicians”).

This is a portrait of the artist as a force that binds together diverse schools and classes in ecstasy and joy. The poetics of this artist is summarized in his advice to friend and neighbor Bezar, the penniless but proud maestro of classical music. “Times have moved on,” says Amir. “People shall keep running away from you unless you sing to the tune of Time. There is nothing wrong with your music but very few people can understand this type of music. In my humble opinion, keep pace with Time, and truly there is none like you in the whole world.”

Bezar happens to be an epitome of the Joyce-like artist who seeks isolation. Amir’s advice leads him into a fantasy where he sees himself on the stage of a night club, singing a pop song and performing like Fred Astair (and parodying Shammi Kapoor), while all the musicians of the orchestra are his own clones (played by the same actor). He feels irritated when they go on praising him senselessly (“Wah bhai wah wah, wah bhai wah wah…”) but gets upset again when they stop that. In the end we are shown that even the high-brow audience, including women, are Bezar himself in so many roles.

How different is the inner world of this artist from what we saw of the Waheed-Amir school of thought! In this comparison, differences between high and popular, classical or pop, or traditional and modern forms of art become secondary. The real criterion is how an artist connects with the people, and whether or not they have a place in the artist’s inner world (the elitist journal where Joyce’s novel was first published was called, quite appropriately, The Egoist).

Destiny appears to be a significant motif
in Waheed Murad's Ishara
Needless to say, names are symbolic. The name Amir comes from the same root as the Arabic words for culture and civilization, architecture and society. Moreover, it was the surname of Qais (the legendary lover better known as Majnun). Aliya literally means the Exalted, and as the real-life name of the filmmaker’s infant daughter it symbolizes the posterity. Bezar means “Fed Up”, Reshma has connotations of silk while Ishrat means luxury. In choosing Amir instead of Ishrat, destiny has preferred culture and civilization over luxury for Aliya but her guardian, despite being a well-wisher, is in conflict with the youth’s destiny.

A cliché in most other mainstream films, destiny becomes a powerful motif in Ishara and is dramatized in full bloom in the final fantasy of the artist. In the beginning we had entered a black and white movie but in the very last reel, when the artist realizes that he cannot be united with Aliya and goes into fantasy, the film turns into color: while the mind of the artist was presented in black and white, his imagination is shown in color – imagination is so much more colorful and possibly also more important. A troupe of mysterious dancers leads Amir into a park. Standing on a lower plane, he finds himself in the presence of Aliya who stands on a higher plane. A chorus of eight dancers accompanies each of them, bringing the total number of people on each sphere to nine, which is identical with the number of stairs between the two planes. “My love, do not be sad,” says Amir as he begins the song. “You stand on one side, I on the other and the insensitive Time between us.” Ascending the nine steps, he moves over to the other plane but the mysterious dancers drag Aliya away and out of the park. The gate closes on Amir, leaving him trapped inside.

After this grand vision of destiny, Amir returns from fantasy and back into his real world where things get sorted out miraculously: Ishrat has learnt the truth and now he dramatically unites the lovers, who fly off to Islamabad, never to be parted again. This is how things ought to be resolved where destiny itself is in the leading strings but there might be a catch. Although the artist has come out of his fantasy, the film never returns to black and white, and ends in color. So, is the happy ending occurring in real or is it part of the fantasy too? Can it be a current which, although unknown to us, is always flowing beneath our “stream of inner thoughts and perceptions”?

These questions draw diverse answers whenever I raise them in my workshops and presentations. Recently, I posted five clips from the movie on my blog,, and the following comments may give the reader an idea about how viewers approach the unusual wind-up of this movie:
  • “The opening sequence was an artist's vision for consensus which realizes in this closing sequence as here everyone seems to be helping the artist in realizing his dreams. Those who once were seen singing and dancing to their own tunes are now seen helping others. Consensus has taken place and the artist's vision for a better tomorrow has dawned.”
  • “The film which started with black and white has ended with color. With the color of his soul, Amir – the artist – succeeded in painting his outer world in colors. No one is sad and everyone, including Ishrat and Reshma, supports Amir in achieving his desire as similar to the starting of the film. A society which makes its decision with consensus achieves its desire and its goal.”
  • “The symmetry – complete with rich colors and light, morning and night, and then the dramatic blacks – the moonlight whites and shadows – all provide a grand design. This backdrop provides a mirror sometimes and other times a frame for Amir's reflective and pre-occupied moments. Against this design he moves alone and then back in touch (slowly) with others and the crowd. This design shows others’ movements away and toward him and his away and toward them.”
Waheed Murad (1938-1983)
It may be a good idea to provide some relevant biographical information about Waheed Murad before ending this article. His grandfather was Zahoor Ilahi Murad, a lawyer from Sialkot and also an acquaintance of Iqbal according to the oral tradition in the Murad family. Zahoor’s son, Nisar Murad, was born in Sialkot in 1915, the same year when Joyce finished serializing A Portrait and Iqbal published ‘Secrets of the Self’. Nisar shifted to Karachi and was twenty-three when his only child was born on October 2, 1938. This was Waheed Murad.

Waheed started his schooling in the prestigious Lawrence College, Ghora Gali (Murree), where he lived in a hostel. His parents missed him too much, called him back after Grade 2 and got him admission in Mary Colasso School, one of the best in Karachi. He was only nine when Pakistan came into being, Karachi became the capital and Waheed saw his father celebrating the newfound independence by changing the name of his film distribution company to Pakistan Films. New friends arrived at school. One of them was Javid Ali Khan, a nephew once-removed of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. Another was Pervez Malik, the son of an army officer. At the end of the schooling, Waheed and Pervez wanted to acquire a Masters in filmmaking from California but Waheed’s parents didn’t want to part with their only child for such a long period. They gave him the money but asked him to acquire the learning by producing his own films in Karachi rather than going abroad. Film Arts was the name the young man chose for his new production house, and the name could have told something about the idea behind it.

This hands-on experience had to be backed up with a Masters in English Literature from Karachi University, where Waheed also won a prize in some elocution competition that would have remained insignificant if the prize was not Ulysses, the sequel to A Portrait by James Joyce. The “stylistic form in which written prose seeks to represent the characters’ stream of inner thoughts and perceptions” fired his imagination and he tried to familiarize himself with as many masters of the stream of consciousness as he could – especially Henry James, Virginia Woolf and William Faulkner. Soon, he started dreaming about making a mainstream Pakistani film utilizing the stream of consciousness technique. The idea must have sounded bizarre, absurd and practically impossible at first.

Ishara was released on February 14, 1969. It was written, produced and directed by Waheed Murad. Dialogue and lyrics were by Masroor Anwar (who later wrote the famous national song ‘Sohni Dharti’) and music by Sohail Rana. Playback singers were Mala, Mehdi Hassan, Naseem Begum, Ahmed Rushdi, Waheed Murad and Deeba (the last two were not credited). Actors included Waheed Murad (as Amir), Deeba (as Aliya), Rozina (as Reshma), Lehri (as Bezar) and Talat Hussain (in his debut role as Ishrat). The movie ran for a little over 25 cumulative weeks (Silver Jubilee), which was considered to be not very well-received in those days.

Khurram Ali Shafique is the author of Iqbal: an Illustrated Biography (2006), which won the Presidential Iqbal Award. His official website is The Republic of Rumi and email is


  1. I can only say Wow.What a wonderful presentation.I accidentally found out about Waheed murad while watching a Bengali movie.I must say I was stunned to know about such an extraordinary actor about whom I knew nothing about until only six months ago.Since then I bought as many movies as I could.I am a Bengali I was raised in New Delhi and Rawalpindi which is why I have learned to appreciate the Urdu language.

  2. @ Chaman Sabeth: You may also like to read A Parable of the Sea, my interpretation of a Waheed Murad film as a statement about the East Bengal issue in the late 1960s.

    And thanks a lot for leaving such a generous comment here.

  3. CORRECTION: Join Pakistan is a Google Group, and not Facebook.

  4. Always loved Waheed Murad, his films, his acting and everything connected with him but have loved him still more after knowing the mystery behind Waheed Murad’s films which were produced by him and Khurram Sahib you so eloquently, exceptionally and wonderfully described in your writings.

  5. I have read a parable of the sea.I was not able to watch the movie Ishara,it was shown on youtube.There was a terrible background noise and the picture was not clear at all.I also by then came to know a lot of facts about waheed Murad.I started having a very negative feeling towards Shabnam,the co-star of samundar.I found out from the comments of journalists and others that she refused to have Waheed Murad as a co-star in any other movies.I know it was her loss.This completely turned me off.Everytime I saw her name in a movie I decided not to watch it.

  6. Crrection, I meant Samundar.I am sorry for overlooking my error before posting it.

  7. I wish I could watch all of Waheed's movies.He was such an excellent actor.It is a shame some people did not realize how good he was.I was disappointed to know he did not get the credit he so deserved.It could have made life a lot simpler for him.I hope he goes to heaven,Ameen.

  8. I find the comments given by people very interesting and I love reading them.I hope you all will continue writing.
    Thank you.

  9. @Chaman Sabeth: Please send us your email or write to me at

    There might be another post about East Pakistan within a few days.

  10. My email address is, will be anxious to read more about East Pakistan.
    Thank you.
    I also wanted to ask you Mr. Khurram,How would it have been if Waheed and Suchitra Sen paired up in a movie.This occurred to me all of a sudden.Both were extremely good looking and superb actors.I know it's pointless to think about it now that the golden age has passed.

  11. I just love to read about Waheed.Even though I have known about him only a little over six months.I thought I went to Lahore for study purposes I could have tried to see him.

  12. Thanks for explaining why Waheed was called the Chocolate hero.I often wondered about it.I was afraid to pose a question about it.I did not want to appear dumb.
    I watched Waheed's movie Khwab Aur Zindagi several times.I thought he portrayed the character of a chauffeur perfectly or to the best of his ability.I have seen chauffeurs in real life and sometimes I felt that they Chauffeurs act as if they are the real Nawab Sahibs.I lived in Rawalpindi and our house was in Peshawar Road.I saw plenty of those guys.Waheed did no such thing.

  13. Ever since I watched Waheed Murad's movie doraha.I became one of his die-hard fans.So much so that if anyone says anything negative about him,I get extremely upset.
    I was very happy when I read about Waheed through the writings of Mr. Shafique I was overjoyed.I cannot thank him enough to let my feelings known.I have read most of your writing about my favourite performer.

  14. the writer has given me an insight of Waheed Murad's personality...his far-sightedness. i am more than overjoyed after reading such an intense and expressive piece of writing which force me to know more about this legend

  15. I just read your article on the topic,Born Again,I put myself in that situation and I will be honest,I did not ask myself,Who Am I.Now I am wondering what might have been my answer.Anyhow I enjoyed reading the article.Even though I had decided not to make any comments anymore, this piece of writing compelled me to do so.I always believed learning does not stop after a certain age,it is continuous and it will not stop until I bid goodbye to this fascinating world.Many thanks.

  16. Greetings,

    I very much like this essay on Waheed Murad and his work. The connections are so multi-various...between film, philosophy, writing, and the ever so subtle art of mediating to people - in a fresh way - what is most essential.

    I thank you for bringing this to my attention. It has brought things to my awareness that I was too hard-headed to notice before.

    All good wishes,


  17. Are we going to have any more articles on Waheed Murad.If he was alive he would have thought,where did this crazy woman come from?I just love to read about Waheed.

  18. Are you going to write about Waheed Murad any more?I hope so,I enjoy reading about him.

  19. Are you going to write about Waheed Murad any more?I hope so,I enjoy reading about him.

  20. @Chaman: Yes, if I get the time, I want to write a complete biography of WM

  21. The story of Waheed Murad is not common to us. The only extra ordinary about him is aside from a being successful actor,a professional and a Palestine his been respected by people.

  22. Every time I read about Waheed Murad ,The thought keeps coming to me, as to why such a brilliant man, would be treated, the way he was by his friends and relatives.
    My mind went so far as to think maybe he would have been treated better in Bollywood.I will take the example of Dilip Kumar,apart from some of his rivals, he was loved and adored by most of his co-stars and others.Why couldn't it be like that for Waheed?
    He was an asset to the industry,but they turned their back on him.
    When I read the writings of Mr. Shafique it reminds me how brilliant he was.
    I guess sometimes great men and women get their due share of credit after their death.What an irony!
    I suppose I have made my point.It is not hard to know that I am a die hard fan of his.

  23. Certainly he was the greatest artist.I never knew this side of WM until read this article.

  24. Wow! just amazing , and he had to die so young. He was a very different class from the rest who out of jealous abandoned him in his real time of need, including his family.He had clean humor, dressed up smartly, an intellectual and very soft -spoken. He is missed a lot and the Pakistani film industry did topple after he left the industry and the world.

  25. such a lovely article on waheed murad, take my breath away! :)